Typhus Surveillance Data
2006-2015 Flea-borne Typhus Human Infection Map
For important information regarding how to protect yourself and your pets from flea-borne typhus, please download these PDF documents.
Flea-borne typhus, formerly called murine typhus, is a bacterial disease found primarily in the fleas that live on animals such as opossums, cats, raccoons and skunks and is transmitted by an infective flea bite. It is caused by the bacteria, Rickettsia typhi, and Rickettsia felis, found in infected fleas and their feces. Both types of rickettsiae are transmitted transovarially (the female fleas transmit the disease to their offspring).
What Are The Symptoms?
Once a person is infected, flea-borne typhus normally has an incubation period of 6-14 days before symptoms appear. Typical symptoms consist of:
* Severe headache
* Sustained high fever (104° F) for many days
* Body aches
* Avoidance of light
* A rash on the chest, back, arms and/or legs appears in approximately 50% of patients.
Flea-borne typhus shares symptoms with other flu-like diseases and can be incorrectly diagnosed if
a specific blood test is not performed. Correct diagnosis and treatment with the proper antibiotic
(doxycycline) can resolve patient discomfort quickly.
How Is The Disease Treated?
Correct diagnosis and treatment with the proper antibiotic (doxycycline) can resolve patient discomfort quickly.
How Have Humans Contributed To The Continued Threat Of This Disease?
The key to preventing this disease is to prevent humans from coming into contact with fleas. Pets must be treated at regular intervals with appropriate flea control products. Both cats and dogs can be hosts for the fleas that carry flea-borne typhus. Do not feed wildlife or leave pet food out overnight. Residents are urged to apply flea control products to any animals that they are feeding regularly including free-roaming and/or neighborhood cats to prevent flea infestations.
How Do I Get Flea-Borne Typhus?
Fleas defecate as they feed. Infection occurs when flea feces containing the bacteria are scratched into the bite site, other wound, inhaled, eaten, or transferred to the eye (conjunctiva).
Even though cats, dogs, raccoons, or opossums may be infected, they do not show obvious symptoms. Cats, dogs, opossums, skunks, and raccoons serve as hosts for the fleas and facilitate their growth and development. Fleas do not survive without the presence of a host animal. It is not known if cats, dogs, raccoons, or skunks are reservoir hosts for the bacteria. Opossums have been found infected with the bacteria.
This disease is found in residential communities. The disease is transmitted by the common cat flea which can be found on:
- Feral and domestic cats
- Any other mammal that can carry fleas.
How Will I Know If My Pet Has Flea-Borne Typhus?
Controlling fleas is the best way to prevent transmission of flea-borne typhus. Pet owners should keep their pets up-to-date on a flea control program.
What Animals Are Involved?
Any animal associated with human homes such as cats, dogs, raccoons, skunks, and opossums, are responsible for bringing infected fleas into contact with the human population. The animal may or may not become infected. Cats, dogs, opossums, skunks, and raccoons serve as hosts for the fleas and facilitate their growth and development. Fleas do not survive without the presence of a host animal. It is not known if cats, dogs, raccoons, or skunks are reservoir hosts for the bacteria. Opossums have been found infected with the bacteria.
Where Can This Disease Be Found?
The bacteria that causes flea-borne typhus has been found in fleas from all areas in Orange County.
What Steps Can I Take To Avoid Contracting The Disease?
• Pets, yards, and homes should be kept free of fleas.
Oral and topical flea control medications can be used on pets to control and prevent flea problems. Consult your veterinarian for advice.
When purchasing pesticides to treat yards and homes, use only materials which state "for flea control" on the label, and follow directions carefully.
• Eliminate places where wild animals can find shelter.
Yards should be kept clear of heavy undergrowth and accumulated debris to reduce areas where animals may nest or hide. Buildings should be examined and repaired to exclude rodents, opossums, and stray or feral cats.
• Eliminate all food sources.
Open trash cans, bird feeders, fallen fruit, and pet food attract rodents and other animals. Pick up all fallen fruit and do not leave pet food out at night.
• Take personal precautions.
Wear protective equipment such as a particle mask or respirator, goggles, and gloves when cleaning areas that may have been infested by rodents, raccoons, skunks, opossums or stray cats.
Prior to trapping opossums and stray or feral cats on your property, contact your local animal control agency or the Humane Society.
When opossums or feral cats become pests, well-intentioned individuals will sometimes attempt to capture and relocate these animals to other areas. This practice violates California Fish and Game laws and is considered inhumane.
Do Not Relocate Animals! (This practice helps spread the disease.)
How Can I Obtain Additional Information?
More information is available from:
Centers for Disease Control,
California Department of Public Health
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
Orange County Health Care Agency
Orange County Health Care Agency, Animal Care Services
Orange County Vector Control District
13001 Garden Grove Blvd.
Garden Grove, CA 92843